*The first American Fairytale*
- "Just like the story about the Wizard of Oz, I have a wish to be a very special girl, I really really wanna know so much, so tell me are you the Wizard of Oz? "
- ―Toybox Lyrics.
"The Wonderful Wizard of Oz ", (commonly known as "The Wizard of Oz" ), is the first book in the Oz series by L. Frank Baum. It was originally illustrated by W. W. Denslow, and published in the year of 1900. It is also considered to be the first official American Fairytale and fable.
Book Reviews of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz from 1900...
- "This story of "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz", is so ingeniously woven out of commonplace material. It is of course an extravaganza experience for any American child, but will surely be found to appeal strongly to adult readers as well as to the younger children, to whom it will be read by mothers or those having charge of the entertaining of children. There seems to be an inborn love of stories in child minds, and one of the most familiar and pleading requests of children is to be told another story, a story like this one."
- ―New York Times (1900)
- " The drawing as well as the introduced color work vies with the texts drawn, and the result has been a book that rises far above the average children's book of today, high as is the present standard. "
- ―New York Times (1900)
- "The book has a bright and joyous atmosphere, and does not dwell upon killing and deeds of violence. Enough stirring adventure enters into it, however, to flavor it with zest, and it will indeed be strange if there be a normal child who will not enjoy the story. "
- ―New York Times (1900)
The Emancipation of Oz
When someone mentions The Wizard of Oz many no doubt imagine families gathered around the television to share in the full-color glory of this timeless classic; but did you know that the book that the beloved movie is adapted from has been in the sights of censors since it was published? The common accusations are that it is “unwholesome” and “ungodly.”
L. Frank Baum's tale was originally published in 1900 and adapted into a stage play in 1902 before arriving on the silver screen in 1939. It remains one of the most well known American literary works over a century later.
The New York Times praised the novel in a September 1900 review, writing that it “would appeal to child readers and to younger children who could not read yet.” The review also applauded the illustrations for being a “pleasant complement to the text.”
Nevertheless, it has come under attack several times. Ministers and educators challenged it for its “ungodly” influence and for depicting women in strong leadership roles. They opposed not only children reading it, but adults as well, lest it undermine longstanding gender roles.
In 1928, the city of Chicago banned it from all public libraries. In the 1950’s, Florida state librarian, Dorothy Dodd said the books were ‘unwholesome for children” and pushed to have them removed from all of the state’s libraries. Children's illustrator, Michael MCcurdy even criticized W. W. Denslow's drawings, stating that the illustrations of the Oz characters are tacky, gaudy and mundane; even going as far as saying Denslow's appearance of Dorothy made her come off as plain, dumpy, even ugly!
In 1957, the director of the Detroit Public Library banned The Wizard of Oz for having “no value for children of today,” for supporting “negativism”, and for “bringing children’s minds to a cowardly level.” Professor Russel B. Nye of Michigan State University publically responded that “if the message of the Oz books- that love, kindness, and unselfishness make the world a better place- has no value today, then maybe the time is ripe for reassess a good many other things besides the Detroit Library’s approved list of children’s books.”
In one of the most noted cases of censorship efforts against the book, seven Fundamentalist Christian families in Tennessee opposed the novel’s inclusion in the public school syllabus and filed a lawsuit in 1986 based on the novel’s depiction of benevolent witches and promoting the belief that essential human attributes were “individually developed rather than God given.”
On the charge of including good witches in the story, they argued that all witches are bad, therefore it is “theologically impossible” for good witches to exist.
One parent said, “I do not want my children seduced into godless supernaturalism,” accusing the book of teaching children to be self-reliant rather than dependent on God to see them through difficult times. Other reasons for the opposition included the novel teaching that females are equal to males and that animals are personified and can speak.
The presiding judge ruled that rather than remove the book, the children were allowed to be excused from lesson plans centered on the novel. When they appealed the decision to the United States Supreme Court, the court refused to hear the case. The group’s lawyers advised all “God-fearing Christians to remove their children from public schools.”
In 2004 both Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson conspired to get the movie banned from broadcast on public television because of “moral turpitude.” Robertson would publically state that “The Almighty told me that flying monkeys and witches are an affront to all good Christians.”
When asked at the time if either had ever seen the movie or read the book, they denied, saying that they “feared ungodly influence.”
The book has even been used on the political spectrum, with some claiming that it promotes socialist and Marxist values due to its perceived lack of a divine presence.
Some librarians have also interpreted the book as a parody of American imperialism and racism. They rejected the author’s introductory explanation as an American fairy tale to encourage children to cherish life’s joyous wonderment, going so far as to describe the book as a “foolishly sentimental, poorly written, sensational, untrue-to-life, and unwholesome book.”
In an article posted by Professor Quentin Taylor of Rogers State University, it is argued that far from being a story to entertain children, The Wizard of Oz is actually an allegory for economics, politics, and 1890’s Populism.
In this modern age of YouTube and DVRs nothing ever gets lost, much to the chagrin of many politicians; but in the 1970’s something could be seen by millions and then disappear, never to be seen again, to be spoken about only as an urban legend. Such was the case of a fabled 1976 episode of Sesame Street, which featured Margaret Hamilton famously reprising her role as the infamous Wicked Witch of the West.
It wasn’t matter of a lost reel. The reason was far more bewildering-the Wicked Witch was deemed “too scary for the children watching the show.”
In the episode, the Wicked Witch is flying over Sesame Street when she drops her broom. David, a law student working at Hooper’s Store, finds it. She demands it back, threatening to turn Big Bird into a feather duster. Meanwhile, Oscar the Grouch becomes lovesick for her.
She spends the episode trying to get the broom back, even going so far as to disguise herself as a kindly old woman. There’s even an inside joke when Mr. Hooper offers her a cup of coffee and she tells him she can’t stand the stuff. Hamilton was appearing in Maxwell House commercials at the time the episode aired.
According to information on Muppet Wiki, the episode prompted a high volume of negative mail from parents. Typical responses included concerns that their children were afraid and now refused to watch the show, using such phrases as “screams and tears” and “the threat of the witch’s power remains in children’s eyes.”
A somewhat unusual response even came from a Wiccan viewer concerned with the perpetuation of a negative fairy tale stereotype and recommended a segment portraying witches as they really are in the modern world.
Due to the overwhelming reaction, additional test screenings were held from March 1 through the 5th, “to assess children’s reactions.”
The viewings indicated that that children were “exceptionally attentive during the Margaret Hamilton segments,” and those who watched the episode in color were fascinated by her green face. The issue of fear was difficult to fully judge, however, due to confusing answers and the fact that the children were surrounded by their peers and adults, and not watching alone. Despite all of the available information, Anna Herera of the Children’s Television Workshop Research Department suggested that “the Margaret Hamilton show not be rerun.”
What’s surprising is that Hamilton appeared as herself, albeit dressed up as a witch, a year earlier for Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood. The footage has found a home and new life on YouTube.
Baum wrote The Wizard of Oz with no intentions of a sequel; but after reading the novel, thousands of children wrote letters to him requesting that he continue the story. In 1904, he published the first sequel, The Marvelous Land of Oz, explaining that he reluctantly wrote the sequel to address the popular demand. He would write sequels in 1907, 1908, and 1909. In 1911’s The Emerald City of Oz the wrote that he could not continue writing sequels because “Ozland had lost contact with the rest of the world.” Children refused to accept this so Baum wrote a sequel every year from 1913 until his death in 1919.
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Condensed-Detailed Summary Version of Baum's Original 1900 Story...
Set roughly in circa 1899-1900---
Dorothy Gale is a young orphaned girl raised by her Uncle Henry and Aunt Em in the bleak, colorless landscape of a small and poor Kansas farm. She has a little black dog named Toto, who is her sole source of happiness on the dry, gray prairie. One day, they are caught up in a cyclone inside their farmhouse which is deposited in a field in Munchkin Country, the eastern quadrant of the undiscovered realm, the magical Land of Oz. It lands on and kills the Wicked Witch of the East, the evil ruler of the Munchkins, for which they are extremely grateful.
The Good Witch of the North who rules over the Gillikin Country in Oz, comes with the Munchkins to greet Dorothy and gives her the Silver Shoes (believed to have mysterious magical properties) that the Wicked Witch of the East had been wearing when she was killed. In order to return to Kansas, the Good Witch of the North tells Dorothy that the Land of Oz is surrounded by a Deadly Desert so she will have to go to the Emerald City to seek out Oz's most powerful and dominant figure known as the great Wizard of Oz to ask him to help her. She is then told to follow the Yellow Brick Road which will lead her there. Before she leaves, the Good Witch of the North kisses her on the forehead, giving her magical protection from any unwanted trouble or even possible death.
On her way down the yellow brick road, Dorothy attended a lavish banquet thrown by a rich Munchkin man named Boq in honor of her for liberating Munchkin Country of its wicked suppresser. After a hardy supper, she spent the night at his residence. The next day, she meets and frees the brainless Scarecrow from the pole on which he is hanging upon in a Munchkin cornfield, applies oil to the rusted connections of the heartless Tin Woodman in the thick forest, and encourages them, including a Cowardly Lion met in the jungle to journey with her and Toto to the Emerald City. The Scarecrow wants a brain, the Tin Woodman wants a heart, and the Cowardly Lion wants courage. All four believe that the Wizard is capable of granting their request. They find many adventures on their journey, including overcoming obstacles such as gaps in the yellow brick road, vicious Kalidahs (beasts with bodies like bears and heads like tigers), a raging river, a female mother Stork, a field of deadly poppies and the Queen of the Field Mice.
When they arrive at the Emerald City, they are asked by the Guardian of the Gates to wear green spectacles to protect their eyes from all the glittering emeralds within there. The Soldier with the Green Whiskers escorts them through the streets until they reach the Royal Palace of Oz where the Wizard resides. They are the first in history to ever meet him. He appears to each of them as someone or something different. Dorothy sees the him as a giant head, the Scarecrow sees him as a beautiful lady, the Tin Woodman sees him as a terrible beast, and the Cowardly Lion sees him as a ball of fire. He agrees to help them each if they defeat the Wicked Witch of the West, who rules over Winkie Country in Oz. Before leaving the Emerald City, the Guardian of the Gates warns them that no one has ever managed to successfully conquer the very cunning and cruel Wicked Witch.
As they travel across Winkie Country, the Wicked Witch can see them coming with her one eye that is as powerful as a telescope. She sends all of her forces to kill them on the spot. First, she sends her 40 great wolves and the Tin Woodman manages to kill them all with his axe. Second, she then sends her 40 crows to peck their eyes out and the Scarecrow manages to kill them by breaking their necks. Third, she summons her swarm of killer black bees to sting them to death but the Tin Woodman serves as a buffer sitting atop the Scarecrow's straw that hide the others. Fourth, she has the Winkies, her slaves, attack them but the Cowardly Lion's stance repeals them. Finally, she uses the power of the magic Golden Cap to have the Winged Monkeys capture Dorothy, Toto and the Cowardly Lion, and immobilize the others by unstuffing the Scarecrow and terribly denting the Tin Woodman by dropping him on sharp rocks. This plan is successful and the survivors are carried to the Witch's castle.
The Wicked Witch forces Dorothy to do all the housework for her, all the while scheming to steal her silver shoes. The Cowardly Lion is locked up in a pen without food until he will submit to being a pack animal; Dorothy sneaks him food at night.
The Wicked Witch tricks Dorothy out of one of her silver shoes and she, in anger, throws a bucket of water at the Witch. She is shocked to see the Witch melt away as she was apparently allergic to water. The Winkies rejoice at being freed of her tyranny and they help restuff the Scarecrow and mend the Tin Woodman. The Winkies love the latter, and they ask him to become their ruler, which he agrees to do after helping Dorothy return to Kansas.
Dorothy, after finding and learning how to use the Golden Cap, summons the Winged Monkeys to carry her and her companions back to the Emerald City. The leader tells how he and his band were bound by an enchantment to the cap by the beautiful princess and sorceress named Gayelette.
When Dorothy and her friends meet the Wizard again, he tries to stall, but Toto accidentally tips over a screen in a corner of the throne room which hides him. He is found to an ordinary old man who, by a hot air balloon, came to Oz from Omaha long ago and has longed to return home and work in a circus again.
The Wizard provides the Scarecrow with a head full of bran, pins, and needles ("a lot of bran-new brains"), the Tin Woodman with a silk heart stuffed with sawdust, and the Cowardly Lion a potion of "courage". Their faith in his power gives these otherwise useless items a focus for their desires. In order to help Dorothy and Toto get home, he realizes that he will have to take them home with him as he has been growing tired of being cooped up all the time and wanting to return to circus work. He and Dorothy make a new hot air balloon from green silk.
At the send off he reveals himself to the people of the Emerald City one last time and appoints the Scarecrow, by virtue of his brains, to rule in his stead. Dorothy goes after Toto as he chases a kitten in the crowd. She attempts to get to the balloon, but the ropes break, the Wizard floats away, and she is left behind.
Dorothy asks the Winged Monkeys to carry her and Toto home, but they can't cross the desert surrounding Oz, subsequently wasting her second wish. The Soldier with the Green Whiskers advises that Glinda, the Good Witch of the South, may be able to help her and Toto get home. Dorothy, Toto, the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, and the Cowardly Lion journey to Glinda's palace in Quadling Country. Together they escape the Fighting Trees, tread carefully through the Dainty China Country where they meet the China Princess and Mr. Joker, and dodge the armless Hammer-Heads on their rocky hill. The Cowardly Lion kills a giant spider who is terrorizing and eating up all the animals in a forest and he agrees to return there to rule them after Dorothy returns to Kansas. Dorothy uses her third wish to fly over the Hammer-Heads' hill, almost losing Toto in the process.
At Glinda's palace, they are greeted warmly by her all female army, and it is revealed by her that Dorothy had the power to go home all along. The silver shoes can take her anywhere she wishes to go. All she has to do is knock the heels together three times. She tearfully embraces her friends, all of whom will be returned, through Glinda's use of the Golden Cap, to their respective kingdoms: the Scarecrow to the Emerald City, the Tin Woodman to the Winkie Country, and the Cowardly Lion to the forest. Then she will give the cap to the King of the Winged Monkeys, so they will never be under its spell again. Having bid her friends goodbye one final time, Dorothy does as she was instructed and wishes to return home. When she opens her eyes, she and Toto are back in Kansas to a joyful family reunion. The silver shoes, however, fell off on her flight back and were lost forever in the desert.
Aunt Em hugs and covers Dorothy in kisses. She asks her where in the world had she come from. She tells her about Oz and how glad she and Toto are to be home again.
- Dorothy Gale
- Uncle Henry
- Aunt Em
- Good Witch of the North
- Wicked Witch of the East
- Tin Woodman
- Cowardly Lion
- Queen of the Field Mice
- Field Mice
- Guardian of the Gates
- Soldier with the Green Whiskers
- Jellia Jamb
- Wizard of Oz
- Wicked Witch of the West
- Winged Monkeys
- Fighting Trees
- China Princess
- Mr. Joker
- The Cyclone
- The Council with the Munchkins
- How Dorothy Saved the Scarecrow
- The Road Through the Forest
- The Rescue of the Tin Woodman
- The Cowardly Lion
- The Journey to the Great Oz
- The Deadly Poppy Field
- The Queen of the Field Mice
- The Guardian of the Gate
- The Wonderful City of Oz
- The Search for the Wicked Witch
- The Rescue
- The Winged Monkeys
- The Discovery of Oz, the Terrible
- The Magic Art of the Great Humbug
- How the Balloon Was Launched
- Away to the South
- Attacked by the Fighting Trees
- The Dainty China Country
- The Lion Becomes the King of Beasts
- The Country of the Quadlings
- Glinda the Good Witch Grants Dorothy's Wish
- Home Again
Land of Oz
In this inaugural book, Baum first delineates and begins to develop his concepts of the Land of Oz, with its central city and its four countries in the four cardinal directions, each with its characteristic color — the Munchkin Country in the east (blue), the Winkie Country in the west (yellow), the Quadling Country in the south (red), and the Gillikin Country in the north (purple). The characters in the first book visit all of the countries except the northern one.
A crucial point about Oz is that it is not "civilized," which allows witchcraft and magic and other odd traits to flourish. (Compare another pre-civilized society, the Island of Yew, which later succumbs to civilizing influences.)
The History of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
Baum wrote the manuscript for the book in soft pencil on pads; he was left-handed, and his writing was clear and easily legible. He saved and framed the last pencil used in the process, and displayed it on a wall in Ozcot, his Hollywood home. Its inscription read, "With this pencil I wrote the MS. of The Emerald City. Finished Oct. 9th, 1899."
(The title of the book changed more than once during its genesis. When Baum and Denslow signed their 1899 contract to create the book, it was termed "The City of Oz or some other appropriate name." Publisher George M. Hill suggested From Kansas to Fairyland at one point; and the book was copyrighted as The Land of Oz.)
Denslow supplied 24 full-color plate illustrations for the book (including the title page), along with more than a hundred drawings, a total that included chapter headings and monochrome pictures that ran under the text. The colors in his plates match the journey of Dorothy and her friends through Oz — pictures of scenes set in the Emerald City are tinted green, and those in the Munchkin Country are dominated by shades of blue.
Baum and Denslow split evenly a 12% royalty of the book; each earned 9 cents per copy on the $1.50 cover price. On 15 January 1900 each man received a $500 advance on royalties from the publisher. The book was an instant success upon publication, selling more than 37,000 copies in fifteen months. Each of the collaborators received royalty payments of $1,423 on 1 November 1900, and another $1,966 at the end of the following year.
The book passed out of copyright protection and into the public domain in 1956. By that time, it had sold over 4,195,000 copies.
It was also adapted into graphic novel form by Marvel Comics, and Puffin Graphics Campfire Classics.
In 1995 Gregory Maguire wrote a revisionist prequel to it called Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West.
In 1997-1999, it was performed onstage at Madison Square Garden.
- Aljean Harmetz. The Making of the Wizard of Oz: Movie Magic and Studio Power in the Prime of MGM — and the Miracle of Production #1060. New York, Delta edition, 1989.
- Katharine M. Rogers. L. Frank Baum, Creator of Oz: A Biography. New York, St. Martin's Press, 2002.
- Online versions of book from Open Library, including an illustrated version
- A discussion of the book
- The first edition, first and second states
|L. Frank Baum's original Oz books|