|Written by||L. Frank Baum|
|Illustrator||John R. Neill|
|Publisher||Reilly & Britton|
The Marvelous Land of Oz, commonly shortened to The Land of Oz, published on July 5, 1904, is the second of L. Frank Baum's books set in the Land of Oz, and is the sequel to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
The protagonist is a boy named Tip, who for as long as he can remember has been under the guardianship of a witch named Mombi in the Gillikin Country. As Mombi is returning home, Tip plans to frighten her with a scarecrow he has made. Since he had no straw available, Tip instead made a man out of wood and gave him a pumpkin for a head, naming him Jack Pumpkinhead. Mombi isn't fooled, and she takes this opportunity to demonstrate the Powder of Life that she bought from another sorcerer. She sprinkles the powder on Jack, bringing him to life and startling Tip, whom Mombi catches and threatens with revenge.
Tip leaves with Jack that night and steals the Powder of Life because Mombi plans to turn him into a marble statue in the morning. As they head for the Emerald City, Tip uses the Powder to animate the Sawhorse so Jack can ride him -- for even though his wooden body doesn't tire, it can get worn away from all that walking. Tip loses them as the tireless Saw-Horse gallops faster and he meets with General Jinjur's all-girl Army of Revolt which is planning to overthrow the Scarecrow, who's ruled the Emerald City since the end of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Marching with the Army, Tip meets again with Jack, the Saw-Horse, and now the Scarecrow as they flee the Emerald City in Jinjur's wake.
The companions arrive at the castle of the Tin Woodman, who now rules the Winkie Kingdom, and plan to retake the Emerald City. On their way back they are diverted by the magic of Mombi (whom Jinjur recruited to help her apprehend them), joined by the Highly Magnified and Thoroughly Educated Wogglebug, and aided by the Field Mice and their queen. Jinjur and her soldiers are scared by the Field Mice out of the main palace, but they still occupy the Emerald City itself. The Scarecrow proposes manufacturing a flying beast called a Gump by which they can escape through the air. Tip animates this collection of palace furniture with the Powder of Life, and they fly off, with no control over their direction, out of Oz and land in a nest of Jackdaws with all of the birds' stolen goods.
In their attempt to drive the Jackdaws from their sanctuary, the Scarecrow's straw is taken away and the Gump's wings are broken. Using the Wishing Pills they discover with the Powder of Life, Tip and his friends escape and journey to the palace of Glinda the Good. They learn from Glinda that the rightful ruler of Oz, a girl named Ozma, was hidden by the Wizard of Oz long ago and that she is the rightful ruler of the Emerald City, not the Scarecrow (who didn't really want the job anyway). Glinda discovered that the Wizard made three visits to Mombi, but not what they were for. She therefore accompanies Tip, Jack, the Saw-Horse, the Scarecrow, the Tin Woodman, the Wogglebug, and the Gump back to the Emerald City to see Mombi. The witch tries to deceive them by disguising a chambermaid as herself (which fails), but manages to elude them as they search for her in the Emerald City. Just as their time runs out, the Tin Woodman plucks a rose to wear in his lapel, unaware that this is the transformed Mombi!
Glinda discovers the deception right away and leads the pursuit of Mombi, who is finally caught as she tries to run across the Deadly Desert in the form of a fast- and long-running Griffin (though later books state that anyone who touches the Desert is transformed into dust). Under pressure from Glinda, Mombi admits that the Wizard brought her the infant Ozma and that she used her magic to transform her into a boy -- Tip, the boy who she'd been guardian of. At first he's shocked to learn this, but Glinda and his friends help him to accept his destiny, and Mombi performs her last spell (Or is it? In The Tin Woodman of Oz, the Scarecrow asks a boy who'd been given twenty legs whether Mombi had transformed him, based on a physical description of her).
The restored Ozma (whose physical appearance differs considerably between this book and the next, Ozma of Oz) leads her friends in retaking the Emerald City. The Tin Woodman and the Scarecrow, now stuffed with paper money that's worthless in Oz except as stuffing, return to the Winkie Country with Jack Pumpkinhead, the Gump is disassembled at his request (though his head, which was a hunting trophy, can still speak), Glinda returns to her palace in the Quadling Country, the Wogglebug remains as Ozma's advisor, and the Saw-Horse becomes her personal steed.
- Jack Pumpkinhead
- The Sawhorse
- Guardian of the Gates
- Soldier with the Green Whiskers
- Jellia Jamb
- Tin Woodman
- H.M. Wogglebug, T.E.
- Queen of the Field Mice
- The Gump
This is the only one of Baum's Oz books in which Dorothy Gale and the Cowardly Lion do not appear.
General Jinjur's Army of Revolt was an inspiration of the Suffragette movement, with which Baum was very familiar, and was a supporter himself; his mother-in-law was the famous suffrage activist Matilda Joslyn Gage.
The Marvelous Land of Oz was dedicated to David C. Montgomery and Fred Stone, the comedians "whose clever personations of the Tin Woodman and the Scarecrow have delighted thousands of children throughout the land..." in the 1902 stage adaptation of the first Oz book.
This and the next 34 Oz books of the famous forty were illustrated by John R. Neill.
Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
One early reviewer of The Marvelous Land of Oz noted that some details in the book clearly appeared to be designed for stage production—in particular, "General Jinjur and her soldiers are only shapely chorus girls." Since the stage adaptation of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz had been a huge hit, with two companies still touring the country as the second book was published, the reviewer's suspicion was both natural and accurate: Baum wrote a stage adaptation called The Woggle-Bug that was produced in Chicago the summer of 1905. (The detail of Tip/Ozma's sex change, which can raise a range of psychological speculations in modern readers, made perfect sense in terms of early twentieth-century stage practice, since the juvenile male role of Tip would have been played by an actress as a matter of course. The musical score was composed by Frederic Chapin, and Fred Mace played the Woggle-Bug. (Baum had wanted Fred Stone and David Montgomery to recap their roles as the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman for the second show, but the two refused, fearing typecasting.) The play, unfortunately, was a flop.
In addition to being part of the basis for Baum's The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays, Land of Oz was the final 1910 Selig Polyscope Oz film, and has been brought to the screen several additional times. The Land of Oz, a Sequel to the Wizard of Oz was a two-reel production by the Meglin Kiddies made in 1931 and released in 1932. The film was recently recovered, but the soundtrack of the second reel is missing.
The novel passed out of copyright protection and entered the public domain in 1960. It was quickly dramatized on the TV series "The Shirley Temple Show" in a one-hour program broadcast on September 18, 1960, with a notable cast including Shirley Temple as Tip and Ozma, Agnes Moorehead as Mombi the evil witch, Sterling Holloway as Jack Pumpkinhead, and Mel Blanc as the voice of the Saw-Horse and others.
The Wonderful Land of Oz (1969) was an extremely low-budget production from independent filmmaker Barry Mahon, which starred his son, Chandos Mahon, as Tip. Filmation's Journey Back to Oz (1971), recast the army of revolt with green elephants and Tip with Dorothy, but was essentially an uncredited adaptation of this book. Elements from this novel and the following one, Ozma of Oz, were incorporated into the 1985 film Return to Oz featuring Fairuza Balk as Dorothy. It is also adapted in Ozu no Mahōtsukai and the Russian animated film, Adventures of the Emerald City: Princess Ozma (2000). The book was also made into a Canadian animated feature film in 1987.
Noel Langley registered an unproduced script with the U.S. Copyright Office which framed the story as the dream of an orphaned girl named "Tippie".
A new stage production of The Marvelous Land of Oz was mounted in Minneapolis in 1981, with music composed by Richard Dworsky, a book by Thomas W. Olson, and lyrics by Gary Briggle, who originated the role of the Scarecrow. This play stayed close to the novel, eliminating some stage-difficult moments and expanding the role of Jellia Jamb. The play was premiered by The Children's Theatre Company and School of Minneapolis, and a recording of the production was made available by MCA Video. The professional and community theatre rights to the play are currently available.
The 1905 Woggle-Bug script has not been published, though it has been preserved on microfilm. Its songs have been published, and though now out of print, were reprinted in 2001.
In 2009 Eric Shanower and Skottie Young produced a comic book adaptation published by Marvel Comics.
- ↑ The full title of the first edition was The Marvelous Land of Oz: Being an Account of the Further Adventures of the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman and Also the Strange Experiences of the Highly-Magnified Woggle-Bug, Jack Pumpkinhead, the Animated Saw-Horse and the Gump.
- ↑ Katharine M. Rogers, L. Frank Baum: Creator of Oz, New York, St. Martin's Press, 2002; pp. 127-31.
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